Bacterial Iron - Slime depositing in toilet tanks or fouling water filters and softeners is a good indication of the presence of bacterial iron. Iron bacteria are most commonly problematic in wells, where water has not been chlorinated. 2. 1. Ferric Iron is clear well water that has been exposed to oxygen, oxidized forming visible rust, giving the water a reddish color. Iron bacteria are naturally occurring organisms that can dissolve iron and some other minerals. These bacteria are usually found on well pipes, plumbing fixtures, and pumps in the form of a slimy material on top. In the process, they produce deposits of iron and a red or brown slime called a “biofilm.” The organisms are not harmful to humans, but can make an iron problem much worse. Iron can be a troublesome chemical in water supplies. Iron becomes part of their cell walls and the end result is a slimy stringy growth that can be seen in toilet flush tanks. The continuous chlorine injection may hide other bacterial contamination and cause corrosion problems. Iron bacteria can be removed by using three methods. Sticky rusty, yellow, brown, or grey slime. There are a number of foul odors that result from these nuisance bugs. Many of these homes already have a water softener. This organic goop is difficult to remove, and the same can be said for colloidal iron as it doesn’t clump together so it can’t be filtered by ordinary methods. Unfortunately, iron bacteria are very difficult to completely eliminate from well water. You can test for iron bacteria at home with an iron bacteria test kit, or by sending a water sample in to a lab. The treatment occurs as follows: Chlorination, retention, filtration. Ferrous … It may be the cheapest method for iron removal. From the ugly stains and discolored tap water to nasty iron bacteria in the toilet tank, iron is one of the most common complaints our water treatment experts around the country are asked to fix. Clear Water Iron. Chlorinator Well Water Package J-PRO-22 + 15 Gal. The most widely accepted method is to “super- chlorinate” the well or “shock” it with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). The taste or odour may be more noticeable after the water has not been used for some time. The three most common types of iron in well water are: Iron bacteria, which show up as reddish slime in toilet tanks; Ferric iron, also known as red iron, which turns water a cloudy orange; Ferrous iron, also known as clear-water iron. Moreover, iron bacteria contamination can create a water quality environment suitable for disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria, viruses, and other microbes. Iron bacteria are not known to cause disease. Iron … "Shock" chlorination is the process of using a strong chlorine solution to disinfect the well and system. Or worse, its confused for something else. Iron bacteria live in groundwater aquifers and can spread from well to well by the use of contaminated tools during well servicing. Iron Bacteria in Well Water Iron bacteria can be controlled by periodic well chlorination or it can be treated in the house. Because iron bacteria are present in many U.S. soils, they can be introduced into a well during drilling, repair, or service, but the following “good housekeeping” practices can help prevent contamination: As in any water distribution system, prevention is the key to safe, healthy, and great tasting water. Avoid placing pumps, well pipes, and well equipment on the ground when doing repairs. Only place disinfected water in a well for drilling, repair, or priming pumps. More serious problems occur when bacteria build up in well systems. Minnesota Department of Health recommends testing for: Other contaminants sometimes occur in private water systems but less often than the contaminants listed above. Repeated chlorination's may be necessary. Solution Tank A complete easy-to-install well water chlorination system for a Wide Range of Conditions and Well Water. The bacteria feed on iron and manganese in water. Kill iron bacteria in well water. IRON BACTERIA IN WELLS What are iron bacteria? This fall, one of us (RM) noticed a brownish foam in his toilet tank and a distinct iron taste to the drinking water, despite having an on-site water softener…. Solution Tank A complete easy-to-install well water chlorination system for a Wide Range of Conditions and Well Water. The iron in your well water fosters the growth of this and other types of bacteria. Copyright 2021 © Water Quality and Health Council. Iron bacteria in wells do not cause health problems, but they can reduce well yields by clogging screens and pipes. High iron water is a frustrating problem for homeowners with wells. Some people have used continuous chlorine injection into the well, but the Minnesota Department of Health does not usually recommend this. They have a significant effect on water treatment and distribution systems. Effects of iron bacteria in drinking water: 1. Bacteria from the genera Gallionella, Leptothrix, and Crenothrix are important members of the iron bacteria group, and occur naturally in surface water and soil in many states like Minnesota. Because iron is common in Michigan groundwater, it is not unusual to find iron bacteria in well water. Chlorine is cheap and easy to use, but it may not always get rid of iron bacteria. Iron bacteria are microorganism that use iron as a source of energy. Elimination of iron bacteria once a well is heavily infested can be extremely difficult. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/pcast_drinking_water_final_executive_summary_final.pdf. These bacteria combine iron (or manganese) and oxygen to form deposits of "rust," bacterial cells, and a slimy material that sticks the bacteria to well pipes, pumps, and plumbing fixtures. A repeat super chlorination is planned in another year or so as an extra precaution. Sometimes treatment techniques may only be partly effective. Oxidation filters are generally stronger … Unfortunately, iron bacteria are very difficult to completely eliminate from well water. These bacteria form redbrown (iron) or black-brown (manganese) slime in toilet tanks and can clog pipes. Activated carbon is usually used as the filter material so the excess chlorine can also be removed. Chlorinator Well Water Package J-PRO-22 + 15 Gal. A well chlorination is the best method to keep it under control. Techniques to remove or reduce iron bacteria include physical removal, pasteurization (injecting steam or hot water into the well and maintaining a water temperature of 140°F/60°C for 30 minutes), and chemical treatment—most commonly well disinfection with chlorine, including shock (super) chlorination. It took a full 24 hours to do the job right, but resulted in the best well water RM has enjoyed in years. Ralph Morris, M.D., M.P.H., is a physician and preventive medicine and public health official living in Bemidji, MN. And these bacteria from the well water find their way to the plumbing and water system. Iron bacteria live by obtaining energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and utilize the resulting CO2 to create organic molecules for their existence. Repeated chlorination's may be necessary. Only a small amount of energy is produced. Control of iron bacteria: Iron bacteria can be introduced into well during drilling, repair of well, and services of well. In the Northern part of the United Sates and in Canada, iron bacteria are naturally present in the soil and in surface water. These bacteria also form a brown slime that can build up in water pipes. The bacteria are not known to cause disease, but can cause undesirable stains, tastes and odours; affect the amount of water a well will produce; and create conditions where other undesirable organisms may grow. 1 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2016). Iron Reducing Bacteria (IRB) cause aesthetic problems with the water such as taste, odor and staining of laundry and fixtures. Iron Bacteria is a name for a large diverse group of bacteria. Your body needs iron to transport oxygen in the blood. A classic example of a rusty-looking tank resulting from water affected with iron bacteria. The most widely accepted method is to “super- chlorinate” the well or “shock” it with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). (952) 767-0230 - Local Minnesota Service - … These bacteria combine iron (or manganese) and oxygen to form deposits of "rust," bacterial cells, and a slimy material that sticks the bacteria to well pipes, pumps, and plumbing fixtures. This season we offer you a captivating NASA video featuring views of planet Earth and space from the International Space Station. Use oxidation filtration to get rid of iron and arsenic traces. Moreover, iron filters cannot treat iron bacteria in the well water. Drilling, repair, or service work can also introduce iron bacteria into a well or water system. Too much iron bacteria in water will cause the water to be too unpleasant to drink. Since iron bacteria tend to build up again a few months after treatment, well owners should strive to control rather than completely “cure” the problem. So if you suspect that you have iron bacteria, contact your state or local health department or the wellcare® Hotline for a list of state-certified laboratories in your area that can perform iron bacteria … Eliminate odors, bacteria and pretreat iron before filtration. Iron Bacteria Problems In Wells Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater PUB-DG-004-2015 Because water is the universal solvent, groundwater usually has some characteristics of the soil and bedrock A problem that frequently results from iron or manganese in water is iron or manganese bacteria. Many of these homes already have a water softener. These bacteria can give the water a musty or swampy smell. Eliminating iron bacteria can be difficult and expensive. The resulting ferric oxide is insoluble, and appears as brown gelatinous slime that stains plumbing fixtures as well as clothing or utensils washed with the water carrying it. Ferrous iron doesn’t affect water clarity, but it stains ceramics and clothing and has a rusty taste. While a low level of iron isn’t harmful in and of itself, iron in drinking water is classified as a secondary contaminant according to the EPA. Detecting Iron Bacteria. The chlorine concentration should be close to but not greater than 200 parts per million (ppm). http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/wells/waterquality/ironbacteria.html#prev. The bacteria eats the iron so it is not always possible to see it. Grosser still, the bacteria eat, and excrete, iron. Iron Bacteria in well water is safe to drink. Iron Bacteria is a common well water problem in Minnesota. Shock chlorination; consider following with continuous chlorination. The iron bacteria are an unusual group of microorganisms found in industrial waters, streams, lakes, wells, and in potable water supplies. To be safe, test the water for nitrate and coliform bacteria. Bacteria from the genera Gallionella, Leptothrix, and Crenothrix are important members of the iron bacteria group, and occur naturally in surface water and soil in many states like Minnesota. And these bacteria from the well water find their way to the plumbing and water system. health.wells@state.mn.us, Iron Bacteria in Well Water Iron bacteria found in well water usually has a habit of clumping in the corners in the bottom of the storage tank on your commode. Iron Bacteria Problems In Wells Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater PUB-DG-004-2015 Because water is the universal solvent, groundwater usually has some characteristics of the soil and bedrock Combatting Iron Bacteria: Testing and Treatment. What Damaging Effects Does Iron Have in Well Water? The EPA has not listed iron bacteria as a contaminant. Wanted to share what we think is iron bacteria or slime bacteria found at a well water filter. A well chlorination is the best method to keep it under control. This surface water reachs sooner or later to the well water. Depending on the extent of contamination, treatments may be only partially/temporarily successful and need to be repeated. Rainwater as it infiltrates the soil and underlying geologic formations dissolves iron, causing it to seep into … Water may be clear when first drawn from a hose bib or faucet, but then turn rusty later. Control and treatment techniques include the method due to which the iron bacteria are removed or reduced from well water. And then run it through a Terminox iron filter. Iron bacteria are microorganism that use iron as a source of energy. Are you one of almost 45 million Americans who get their water from a private well?1 If so, you undoubtedly want clean, safe, and clear water. So, if you suspect you might have iron bacteria contaminating your well, give Angel Water a call at 847-382-7800. Ferrous Iron “Clear-Water Iron”: This form of iron cannot be seen in the water because it is soluble, or can be dissolved in water. Iron bacteria are small living organisms that naturally occur in soil, shallow groundwater, and surface waters. The simplest way to check for the presence of iron bacteria is to take a look inside your toilet tank. May be more noticeable after the water has not been used for a while. The most common indication of iron bacteria in the water supply is a reddish-brown or yellowish gelatinous slime in water tanks, faucets, toilet tanks, and plumbing. Method requires long contact time for adequate treatment. Clues which indicate that iron bacteria may be present in well water are: Iron bacteria . These organisms may appear alone or in different combinations with other species of bacteria, fungi, and algae. Both of these substances are known to block well formations and screens, clog the impellers of pumps, and cause dramatic decreases in well efficiency and water quality. Ferric Iron in Well Water The Best Whole House Iron Filter System. Here are some ways to prevent iron bacteria from entering your well: Some treatment techniques may remove or reduce iron bacteria. Make sure the well is properly constructed, located, and maintained. Shocking the well eradicates the bacteria binding the iron, allowing you to catch the remaining iron with a softener, oxidizer, or sediment filter. Swampy, oily or petroleum, cucumber, sewage, rotten vegetation, or musty. Water containing organic iron is usually yellow or brown color, but may be colorless. If left unchecked, biofouling can clog pump intakes, well screens, filters, and water pipes. Because objectionable stains, tastes, or odors may be due to other causes—including sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, or other nuisance organisms like sulfur bacteria—proper identification of chemical substances and microorganisms in well water is the first step, and should be done by a state-certified laboratory. The dramatic effects of iron bacteria are seen in surface waters as brown slimy masses on stream bottoms and lakeshores or as an oily sheen upon the water. Physical removal is usually the first step in very infected wells. The three most common types of iron in well water are: Iron bacteria, which show up as reddish slime in toilet tanks; Ferric iron, also known as red iron, which turns water a cloudy orange; Ferrous iron, also known as clear-water iron. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/pcast_drinking_water_final_executive_summary_final.pdf, https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/odwma-eh-wcu-ironbacteriainwells_529560_7.pdf, http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/wells/waterquality/ironbacteria.html#prev, Water Loss: Challenges, Costs, and Opportunities, Silent Beauty: A Holiday Perspective from Aloft, Unpleasant taste and odors resembling fuel, sewage, or rotten vegetation, Rusty, slime buildup in toilet tank, on filters, or the inside of the well casing, Reduced well production or efficiency of point-of-use treatment devices, Premature or excessive corrosion of well and plumbing components, Water added to a well for drilling, repair, or service should be disinfected, and should never be taken from a lake or pond, The well casing should be watertight, properly capped, and ideally extend a foot or more above ground (if you are in a flood zone, go higher than any anticipated flood), During repairs and servicing, pumps, well pipes, and equipment should never be placed directly on the ground, The well, pump, and plumbing should be purged, super chlorinated, and pumped when installed or repaired. From the ugly stains and discolored tap water to nasty iron bacteria in the toilet tank, iron is one of the most common complaints our water treatment experts around the country are asked to fix. By Ralph Morris, MD, MPH, and Stephen A. Hubbs, PE. You may have to treat with chlorine more than once. Yellow, orange, red, or brown stains and colored water. Bacterial iron may build up quickly compared to mineral encrustation. In addition to causing problems in wells, the bacteria may colonize tanks and water treatment devices, as well as spring outfalls. Information on this website is available in alternative formats upon request. Chlorine products must be suitable for drinking water. Iron also promotes undesirable bacterial growth ("iron bacteria") within a waterworks and distribution system, resulting in the deposition of a slimy coating on the piping (4). Yes. A licensed well contractor will: This is the most common treatment technique for iron bacteria. iron bacteria in drinking water. Iron Bacteria and Well Treatment. Bacterial iron may build up quickly compared to mineral encrustation. “Feathery" or filamentous growths (especially in standing water). In the Northern part of the United Sates and in Canada, iron bacteria are naturally present in the soil and in surface water. Most iron comes from food, since the body cannot easily absorb iron from water. Minnesota Department of Health. 3 Iron Bacteria in Well Water: Well Management Program. However, they can create conditions where other disease-causing organisms may grow. https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/odwma-eh-wcu-ironbacteriainwells_529560_7.pdf. Tastes and Odours – Iron bacteria often produce unpleasant tastes and odours commonly reported as: swampy, oily or petroleum, sewage, rotten vegetation or musty. The bad news – they thrive in high iron water because irons is a perfect food source for Iron Bacteria. Making up at least 5 percent of the earth’s crust, iron is one of the earth’s most plentiful resources. The presence of iron in private well water is an ongoing problem for many homeowners. And also many other non-chlorinated water supplies. This can help you choose the best system for your well water's needs and alert you of any harmful pathogens or trace substances. Bacterial Iron - Slime depositing in toilet tanks or fouling water filters and softeners is a good indication of the presence of bacterial iron. But if unpleasant tastes or smells are coming out of your faucets, and your sinks, tubs, and toilets are stained reddish-brown, your well and water system might be contaminated with iron bacteria. Eliminate odors, bacteria and pretreat iron before filtration. Iron may present some concern if harmful bacteria have entered a well. And the more they eat and excrete, the more slime they produce which forms large, gelatinous, slimy colonies in your well. Iron Bacteria in well water is a common problem in Illinois. Relax and enjoy the mesmerizing perspective of those aloft in near-Earth orbit. Iron bacteria present in the well water cause odors as well as the chances of the sulfur bacteria … How Can I … Iron Bacteria and Well Water Iron bacteria are microorganisms that use iron (or manganese) as an energy source. 888-345-0823 Toll-free. These non-pathogenic (non-health threatening) bacteria feed on iron and manganese in water, forming red-brown (iron) or black-brown (manganese) slime, … Major uses Iron is used as constructional material, inter alia for drinking-water pipes. So, if you suspect you might have iron bacteria contaminating your well, give Angel Water a call at 847-382-7800. If you are on a city water supply, you may want to test for the by-products of disinfection and heavy metals as they are likely to be in the water. Iron bacteria is a general term used to describe various species of bacteria that use iron to live and grow. In addition to causing problems in wells, the bacteria may colonize tanks and water treatment devices, as well as spring outfalls. Two of the biggest culprits of well screen and formation plugging are iron related bacteria (IRB) and calcium carbonate. All rights reserved. These bacteria are not healththreatening and can occur naturally in soil, shallow groundwater, and surface water. This surface water reachs sooner or later to the well water. Common odors associated with Iron Bacteria include: Make sure the well casing is capped, watertight, and extends at least 1 foot above ground. It is truly delightful when the holidays afford us quiet moments in which to contemplate life and home from a different perspective. Both natural sources and human activities can contaminate well water and cause short-term or long-term health effects. We’ll test your water to confirm the presence of the bacteria, help you choose which chlorine injection system is the best fit for your home, and professionally install it for you. Iron biofouling generally causes side effects such slight and intermittent sulfide odor, and breakthroughs of red water. Activated carbon is usually used as the filter material so the excess chlorine can also be removed. Iron Bacteria May Help Other Organisms Grow There are three groups of chemicals people use for this: Pasteurization injects steam or hot water into the well to keep the well water temperature at 60 degrees Celsius (140 degrees Fahrenheit) for 30 minutes. Contact a licensed well contractor or water treatment professional to determine the best approach for your situation. Iron bacteria are bacteria that derive the energy they need to live and multiply by oxidizing dissolved ferrous iron. Michigan DEQ Fact Sheet. The next step is usually chemical treatment. Such treatments have the added benefit of eliminating or reducing pathogenic microorganisms that may also be present in your drinking water. Testing your well water is the only way to detect most of the common contaminants in Minnesota groundwater; you cannot taste, see, or smell most contaminants. If your water is frothy, rust-colored, slimy, or odorous, it may be host to iron bacteria. The removal of iron from well water first involves identifying the type of iron present in the water supply (ferric, ferrous, or iron bacteria), measuring its concentration in ppm, measuring the pH of the water, and then applying the appropriate method of iron removal, either through oxidation, ion exchange, greensand, or chemical feed. They are known to grow and proliferate in waters containing iron concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L. A problem that frequently results from iron or manganese in water is iron or manganese bacteria. Iron bacteria do not produce hydrogen sulphide, the“rotten egg” smell, but do create an environment where sulphur bacteria can grow and produce hydrogen sulphide. Grosser still, the bacteria eat, and excrete, iron. Iron bacteria are in most soils in Minnesota. Sources of Iron and Manganese in Drinking Water. Iron bacteria are present in most soils in Minnesota. And the more they eat and excrete, the more slime they produce which forms large, gelatinous, slimy colonies in your well. Iron-oxidizing bacteria are chemotrophic bacteria that derive the energy they need to live and multiply by oxidizing dissolved ferrous iron. In the case of iron bacteria in mains, the proper remedy is to revise the treatment of the water to remove the iron or, if the bacteria grow because of deterioration of old iron mains, to reline the mains (Section 16.11). Clues which indicate that iron bacteria may be present in well water are: 1. Both the concentration of chlorine and how long the chlorine solution is in contact with the bacteria are important. 2. To determine the best treatment option, it’s best to get the water tested. This system will remove iron in your water and provide you with pure, fresh, healthy, enjoyable water. The treatment occurs as follows: Chlorination, retention, filtration. The bad news – they thrive in high iron water because irons is a perfect food source for Iron Bacteria. Tuesday, 27-Aug-2019 07:36:58 CDT, Health Care Facilities, Providers, and Insurance, Healthy Communities, Environment and Workplaces, Water Quality/Well Testing/Well Disinfection, Accredited Laboratories/Well Water Testing. Whenever surface water or soil enters your well, these bacteria may be able to thrive in the plumbing of your home or business. The stringy growths can also line pipes and build up in water tanks, fixtures, and appliances. The most common indication of iron bacteria in the water supply is a reddish-brown or yellowish gelatinous slime in water tanks, faucets, toilet tanks, and plumbing. However, at least 0.3 ppm … The Iron Zapper System has proven to effectively treat/remove Iron, Sulfur (rotten egg smell), Iron Bacteria & Manganese from home and business water. However, the EPA does list iron as a Secondary Drinking Water Contaminant because the pathogenic organisms, which require iron to grow, increase the risk for disease or infection when digested by humans. Tannins stain water a tea color. Iron bacteria are organisms that thrive on the iron content in water and are the most complicated and expensive problems when it comes to filtering drinking water. This guide give you a clear method for treating your drinking water to remove coliform, E. coli, and other potentially harmful bacteria living in your well water and pipes.. Iron bacteria are microorganisms that use iron as an energy source or for other life functions. If you are on a private well it is important to test for bacteria as that is a common contaminant, as well as naturally occurring contaminants such as arsenic, radon, barium, iron and manganese. So, you just found out that bacteria live in your well water… Never fear. Iron biofouling generally causes side effects such slight and intermittent sulfide odor, and breakthroughs of red water. Updated 3. 2 Iron Bacteria in Wells. High iron water is a frustrating problem for homeowners with wells. (PDF), 651-201-5000 Phone 651-201-4600 or Effects on Your Health. You can confirm that it is iron bacteria by having the water tested at a laboratory. I wrote at the end of 2016 about the Future of America’s Drinking Water, and summarized some basic facts about US daily and annual water consumption. A concentration greater than 200 ppm reduces how effective the disinfection is.  Before adding the chlorine solution, the well should be pumped until clear or physically cleaned. Control Iron bacteria live by obtaining energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron and utilize the resulting CO2 to create organic molecules for their existence. Iron bacteria are particularly prone to develop in wells and boreholes drawing water from ferruginous formations. REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT: Science and Technology to Ensure the Safety of the Nation’s Drinking Water. See the Well Disinfection webpage. If shocking your well does not adequately eliminate the bacterially bound iron, then a constant chlorination system may need to be installed after your retention tank. These iron bacterium derive their energy (to grow) from oxidation of the soluble Ferrous Iron (which is present in groundwater) to the insoluble Ferric form. You may see the iron bacteria in the surface waters as a mass of brown slime at the bottom of the stream or lakes or as an oily luster on the water surface. They can also affect how much water the well produces and may cause clogging issues. Disinfect the well, pump, and plumbing after repairs. Test your well water for bacteria and minerals before choosing an iron removal system. Iron bacteria can be introduced into a well or water system during drilling, repair, or service. Never use water taken from a lake or pond. For a higher amount of ferrous above 10 mg/L, we suggest using chemical oxidation in combination with a water filter treatment system. Iron bacteria Water is the universal solvent, and groundwater usually has some characteristics of the soil and rock where it is found. These bacteria usually appear in irrigation wells with oil-lubricated turbine pumps, especially where excess oil drips and accumulates on the water surface in the well. You can mix BOTH soda ash and Clorox if necessary in the same mixing tank. 800-383-9808 Iron bacteria can also be a problem with well water and isn’t a pretty sight to behold as its usually slimy jelly-like substance that’s brown or red. Iron bacteria are not hazardous to health, but in some cases they cause troublesome well problems. For iron bacteria you would normally add about 2-3 cups of Clorox bleach to 15 gallons of water to the chemical feeder mixing tank. Iron Bacteria “Iron bacteria” naturally occur in shallow soils and groundwater and can invade your well water when it is constructed or repaired. Ferrous iron doesn’t affect water clarity, but it stains ceramics and clothing and has a rusty taste. Improper treatment can make this problem even worse. 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Contaminants sometimes occur in private well water filter are known to grow proliferate... Help you choose the best approach for your situation can clog pump intakes, pipes... You can confirm that it is very common in groundwater aquifers and can spread from well water problem Illinois... And rock where it is found views of planet earth and space from the International Station... And may cause clogging issues small living organisms that naturally occur in soil, groundwater. With pure, fresh, healthy, enjoyable water a complete easy-to-install well water problem in Minnesota best treatment,! Filters are generally stronger … iron bacteria water is a good indication of the Nation ’ s most resources! Naturally occurring elements in the same mixing tank with a water softener source or other... Wanted to share what we think is iron bacteria can be introduced into a or! Introduced into a well Council of Advisors on Science and Technology ( 2016 ) once well. Used for some time filters, and surface waters growth of this other... Most commonly problematic in wells do not cause health problems, but stains... First step in very infected wells the concentration of chlorine and how to identify iron are! In another year or so as an extra precaution formats upon request the iron survive!

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